The following is a collection of conjugated linoleic acid Abstracts from published scientific research and papers. Integratedhealth.com has designed CLA with much of the following conjugated linoleic acid research in mind.
REFERENCE 1 OF 17
Cancer 1994 Aug 1;74(3 Suppl):1050-4
Conjugated linoleic acid. A powerful anticarcinogen from animal fat sources.
Ip C, Scimeca JA, Thompson HJ
Department of Surgical Oncology, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York 14263.
Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a mixture of positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid, which is found preferentially in dairy products and meat. Preliminary studies indicate that CLA is a powerful anticarcinogen in the rat mammary tumor model with an effective range of 0.1-1% in the diet. This protective effect of CLA is noted even when exposure is limited to the time of weaning to carcinogen administration. The timing of this treatment corresponds to maturation of the mammary gland to the adult stage, suggesting that CLA may have a direct effect in reducing the cancer risk of the target organ. Of the vast number of naturally occurring substances that have been demonstrated to have anticarcinogenic activity in experimental models, all but a handful of them are of plant origin. Conjugated linoleic acid is unique because it is present in food from animal sources, and its anticancer efficacy is expressed at concentrations close to human consumption levels.
REFERENCE 2 OF 17
Nutr Cancer 1995;24(3):241-7
Effect of timing and duration of dietary conjugated linoleic acid on mammary cancer prevention.
Ip C, Scimeca JA, Thompson H
Department of Surgical Oncology, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY 14263, USA.
Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a minor fatty acid found predominantly in the form of triglycerides in beef and dairy products. Previous work by Ip and co-workers showed that free fatty acid-CLA at < or = 1% in the diet is protective against mammary carcinogenesis in rats. The present study verified that the anticancer activities of free fatty acid-CLA and triglyceride-CLA are essentially identical. This is an important finding, because it rules out a nonspecific free fatty acid effect. In terms of practical implication, we can continue the in vivo research with the less-expensive free fatty acid-CLA without compromising the physiological relevance of the data. A primary objective of this report was to investigate how the timing and duration of CLA feeding might affect the development of mammary carcinogenesis in the methylnitrosourea (MNU) model. We found that exposure to 1% CLA during the early postweaning and pubertal period only (from 21 to 42 days of age) was sufficient to reduce subsequent tumorigenesis induced by a single dose of MNU given at 56 days of age. This period incidentally corresponds to a time of active morphological development of the mammary gland to the mature state. In contrast to the above observation, a continuous intake of CLA was required for maximal inhibition of tumorigenesis when CLA feeding was started after MNU administration, suggesting that some active metabolite(s) of CLA might be involved in suppressing the process of neoplastic promotion/progression.
REFERENCE 3 OF 17
Carcinogenesis 1996 May;17(5):1045-50
The efficacy of conjugated linoleic acid in mammary cancer prevention is independent of the level or type of fat in the diet.
Ip C, Briggs SP, Haegele AD, Thompson HJ, Storkson J, Scimeca JA
Department of Surgical Oncology, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY 14263, USA.
The objective of the present study was to investigate whether the anticarcinogenic activity of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is affected by the amount and composition of dietary fat consumed by the host. Because the anticancer agent of interest is a fatty acid, this approach may provide some insight into its mechanism of action, depending on the outcome of these fat feeding experiments. For the fat level experiment, a custom formulated fat blend was used that simulates the fatty acid composition of the US diet. This fat blend was present at 10, 13.3, 16.7 or 20% by weight in the diet. For the fat type experiment, a 20% (w/w) fat diet containing either corn oil (exclusively) or lard (predominantly) was used. Mammary cancer prevention by CLA was evaluated using the rat dimethylbenz[a]anthracene model. The results indicated that the magnitude of tumor inhibition by 1% CLA was not influenced by the level or type of fat in the diet. It should be noted that these fat diets varied markedly in their content of linoleate. Fatty acid analysis showed that CLA was incorporated predominantly in mammary tissue neutral lipids, while the increase in CLA in mammary tissue phospholipids was minimal. Furthermore, there was no evidence that CLA supplementation perturbed the distribution of linoleate or other fatty acids in the phospholipid fraction. Collectively these carcinogenesis and biochemical data suggest that the cancer preventive activity of conjugated linoleic acid is unlikely to be mediated by interference with the metabolic cascade involved in converting linoleic acid to eicosanoids. The hypothesis that CLA might act as an antioxidant was also examined. Treatment with CLA resulted in lower levels of mammary tissue malondialdehyde (an end product of lipid peroxidation), but failed to change the levels of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (a marker of oxidatively damaged DNA). Thus while CLA may have some antioxidant function in vivo in suppressing lipid peroxidation, its anticarcinogenic activity cannot be accounted for by protecting the target cell DNA against oxidative damage. The finding that the inhibitory effect of CLA maximized at 1% (regardless of the availability. of linoleate in the diet) could conceivably point to a limiting step in the capacity to metabolize CLA to some active product(s) which is essential for cancer prevention.
REFERENCE 4 OF 17
Carcinogenesis 1997 Apr;18(4):755-9
Retention of conjugated linoleic acid in the mammary gland is associated with tumor inhibition during the post-initiation phase of carcinogenesis.
Ip C, Jiang C, Thompson HJ, Scimeca JA
Department of Surgical Oncology, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY 14263, USA.
Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been reported to have significant activity in inhibiting mammary carcinogenesis. A major objective of this study was to evaluate how changes in the concentration of CLA in mammary tissue as a function of CLA exposure/withdrawal were correlated with the rate of occurrence of mammary carcinomas. Rats treated with a single dose of dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) at 50 days of age were given 1% CLA in the diet for either 4 weeks, 8 weeks or continuously following carcinogen administration. No cancer protection was evident in the 4 or 8 week-CLA treatment groups. Significant tumor inhibition was observed only in rats that were given CLA for the entire duration of the experiment (20 weeks). Analysis of CLA in the mammary gland showed that the incorporation of CLA was much higher in neutral lipids than in phospholipids. When CLA was removed from the diet, neutral lipid- and phospholipid-CLA returned to basal values in about 4 and 8 weeks, respectively. The rate of disappearance of neutral lipid-CLA (rather than phospholipid-CLA) subsequent to conjugated linoleic acid withdrawal paralleled more closely the rate of occurrence of new tumors in the target tissue. It appears that neutral lipid-CLA may be a more sensitive marker of tumor protection than phospholipid-CLA. However, the physiological relevance of CLA accumulation in mammary lipids is unclear and remains to be determined. A secondary goal of this study was to investigate whether CLA might selectively inhibit clonal expansion of DMBA-initiated mammary epithelial cells with wild-type versus codon 61 mutated Ha-ras genes. Approximately 16% of carcinomas in the control group (without CLA) were found to express codon 61 ras mutation. Although continuous treatment with CLA reduced the total number of carcinomas by 70%, it did not alter the proportion of ras mutant versus wild-type carcinomas, suggesting that CLA inhibits mammary carcinogenesis irrespective of the presence or absence of the ras mutation.
REFERENCE 5 OF 17
Nutr Cancer 1997;27(2):131-5
Conjugated linoleic acid and linoleic acid are distinctive modulators of mammary carcinogenesis.
Ip C, Scimeca JA
Department of Surgical Oncology, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY 14263, USA.
Previous work by Ip and co-workers showed that mammary cancer prevention by conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is independent of the level of fat in the diet. Because CLA is an isomer of linoleic acid, there is the question regarding whether the effect of CLA is due to a displacement of linoleic acid in cells. To further evaluate whether there might be an interaction between linoleic acid and CLA, the present study was designed to examine the dose response to CLA (at 0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, and 2%) in rats fed a 2% or a 12% linoleate diet (both basal diets contained 20% total fat by weight). The end points of investigation included the bioassay of mammary tumorigenesis in the rat dimethylbenz[a]anthracene model as well as the incorporation of CLA, linoleic acid, and arachidonic acid in mammary glands. The mammary carcinogenesis results showed that the efficacy of tumor suppression by CLA was not affected by linoleate intake. With either linoleate diet, no further protection was evident with levels of CLA > 1%. Analysis of neutral lipids and phospholipids of the mammary tissue indicated that 1) the accumulation of CLA in mammary tissue was dose dependent from 0.5% to 2%, 2) CLA concentration was 10 times higher in neutral lipids than in phospholipids, 3) the incorporation of CLA in either fraction was not affected by the availability of linoleic acid, and 4) CLA did not appear to displace linoleic acid or arachidonic acid in the mammary tissue. The above findings suggest that there may be distinctive mechanisms in the modulation of tumor development by linoleic acid and CLA.
REFERENCE 6 OF 17
Anticancer Res (1997 Mar-Apr) 17(2A):969-73
Conjugated linoleic acid suppresses the growth of human breast adenocarcinoma cells in SCID mice.
Visonneau S, Cesano A, Tepper SA, Scimeca JA, Santoli D, Kritchevsky D
Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), which is mainly derived from dairy products, has been shown both in vitro and in animal models to have strong anti-tumor activity. Particular effects were observed on the growth and metastatic spread of transplantable mammary tumors. In this study, we examined the effect of dietary CLA on the growth of human breast adenocarcinoma cells in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. Mice were fed 1% CLA for two weeks prior to subcutaneous inoculation of 10(7) MDA-MB468 cells and throughout the study. Dietary CLA inhibited local tumor growth by 73% and 30% at 9 and 14 weeks post-inoculation, respectively. Moreover, CLA completely abrogated the spread of breast cancer cells to lungs, peripheral blood, and bone marrow. These results indicate the ability of dietary conjugated linoleic acid to block both the local growth and systemic spread of human breast cancer via mechanisms independent of the host immune system.
REFERENCE 7 OF 17
Lipids 1997 Feb;32(2):199-204
Conjugated linoleic acid modulates hepatic lipid composition in mice.
Belury MA, Kempa-Steczko A
Department of Foods and Nutrition, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907, USA.
Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a chemoprotective fatty acid that inhibits mammary, colon, forestomach, and skin carcinogenesis in experimental animals. We hypothesize that the ubiquitous chemoprotective actions of dietary CLA in extrahepatic tissues are dependent upon its role in modulating fatty acid composition and metabolism in liver, the major organ for lipid metabolism. This study begins to evaluate the role of CLA in lipid metabolism by determining the modulation of fatty acid composition by CLA. Female SENCAR mice were fed semipurified diets containing 0.0% (Diet A), 0.5% (Diet B), 1.0% (Diet C), or 1.5% (Diet D) CLA (by weight) for six weeks. Mice fed Diets B, C, and D exhibited lower body weights and elevated amounts of extractable total lipid in livers compared with mice fed diets without CLA (Diet A). Analyses of the fatty acid composition of liver by gas chromatography revealed that dietary CLA was incorporated into neutral and phospholipids at the expense of linoleate in Diets B, C, and D; oleate increased and arachidonate decreased in neutral lipids of CLA diet groups. In addition, increasing dietary CLA was associated with reduced linoleate in hepatic phospholipids. In an in vitro assay, CLA was desaturated to an unidentified 18:3 product to a similar extent as linoleate conversion to gamma-linolenate (9.88, and 13.63%, respectively). These data suggest that CLA may affect metabolic interconversion of fatty acids in liver that may ultimately result in modified fatty acid composition and arachidonate-derived eicosanoid production in extrahepatic tissues. In addition to determining how dietary CLA modulates eicosanoid synthesis, further work is needed to identify enzymatic products that may result from desaturation of CLA.
REFERENCE 8 OF 17
Anticancer Res 1998 May-Jun;18(3A):1429-34
Opposite effects of linoleic acid and conjugated linoleic acid on human prostatic cancer in SCID mice.
Cesano A, Visonneau S, Scimeca JA, Kritchevsky D, Santoli D
Wistar Institute, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.
The relationship between dietary fat intake (level and type) and cancer development is a matter of concern in Western society. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of three different diets on the local growth and metastatic properties of DU-145 human prostatic carcinoma cells in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. Animals were fed a standard diet or diets supplemented with 1% LA or 1% CLA for 2 weeks prior to subcutaneous (s.c.) inoculation of DU-145 cells and throughout the study (total of 14 weeks). Mice receiving LA-supplemented diet displayed significantly higher body weight, lower food intake and increased local tumor load as compared to the other two groups of mice. Mice fed the CLA-supplemented diet displayed not only smaller local tumors than the regular diet-fed group, but also a drastic reduction in lung metastases. These results support the view that dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids may influence the prognosis of prostatic cancer patients, thus opening the possibility of new therapeutic options.
REFERENCE 9 OF 17
Am J Physiol 1998 Sep;275(3 Pt 2):R667-72
Effects of conjugated linoleic acid on body fat and energy metabolism in the mouse.
West DB, Delany JP, Camet PM, Blohm F, Truett AA, Scimeca J
Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70808, USA.
Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a naturally occurring group of dienoic derivatives of linoleic acid found in the fat of beef and other ruminants. CLA is reported to have effects on both tumor development and body fat in animal models. To further characterize the metabolic effects of CLA, male AKR/J mice were fed a high-fat (45 kcal%) or low-fat (15 kcal%) diet with or without CLA (2.46 mg/kcal; 1.2 and 1.0% by weight in high- and low-fat diets, respectively) for 6 wk. CLA significantly reduced energy intake, growth rate, adipose depot weight, and carcass lipid and protein content independent of diet composition. Overall, the reduction of adipose depot weight ranged from 43 to 88%, with the retroperitoneal depot most sensitive to CLA. CLA significantly increased metabolic rate and decreased the nighttime respiratory quotient. These findings demonstrate that CLA reduces body fat by several mechanisms, including a reduced energy intake, increased metabolic rate, and a shift in the nocturnal fuel mix.
REFERENCE 10 OF 17
Am J Physiol 1999 Apr;276(4 Pt 2):R1172-9
Conjugated linoleic acid rapidly reduces body fat content in mice without affecting energy intake.
DeLany JP, Blohm F, Truett AA, Scimeca JA, West DB
Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge 70808, Louisiana.
Recent reports have demonstrated that conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has effects on body fat accumulation. In our previous work, CLA reduced body fat accumulation in mice fed either a high-fat or low-fat diet. Although CLA feeding reduced energy intake, the results suggested that some of the metabolic effects were not a consequence of the reduced food intake. We therefore undertook a study to determine a dose of CLA that would have effects on body composition without affecting energy intake. Five doses of CLA (0.0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, and 1.0% by weight) were studied in AKR/J male mice (n = 12/group; age, 39 days) maintained on a high-fat diet (%fat 45 kcal). Energy intake was not suppressed by any CLA dose. Body fat was significantly lower in the 0.50, 0.75, and 1.0% CLA groups compared with controls. The retroperitoneal depot was most sensitive to the effects of CLA, whereas the epididymal depot was relatively resistant. Higher doses of CLA also significantly increased carcass protein content. A time-course study of the effects of 1% CLA on body composition showed reductions in fat pad weights within 2 wk and continued throughout 12 wk of CLA feeding. In conclusion, conjugated linoleic acid feeding produces a rapid, marked decrease in fat accumulation, and an increase in protein accumulation, at relatively low doses without any major effects on food intake.
REFERENCE 11 OF 17
Lipids 1997 Aug;32(8):853-8
Effect of conjugated linoleic acid on body composition in mice.
Park Y, Albright KJ, Liu W, Storkson JM, Cook ME, Pariza MW
Department of Food Microbiology and Toxicology, University of Wisconsin-Madison 53706, USA.
The effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on body composition were investigated. ICR mice were fed a control diet containing 5.5% corn oil or a CLA-supplemented diet (5.0% corn oil plus 0.5% CLA). Mice fed CLA-supplemented diet exhibited 57% and 60% lower body fat and 5% and 14% increased lean body mass relative to controls (P < 0.05). Total carnitine palmitoyltransferase activity was increased by dietary CLA supplementation in both fat pad and skeletal muscle; the differences were significant for fat pad of fed mice and skeletal muscle of fasted mice. In cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes CLA treatment (1 x 10(-4)M) significantly reduced heparin-releasable lipoprotein lipase activity (-66%) and the intracellular concentrations of triacylglyceride (-8%) and glycerol (-15%), but significantly increased free glycerol in the culture medium (+22%) compared to control (P < 0.05). The effects of CLA on body composition appear to be due in part to reduced fat deposition and increased lipolysis in adipocytes, possibly coupled with enhanced fatty acid oxidation in both muscle cells and adipocytes.
REFERENCE 12 OF 17
J Nutr 1999 Mar;129(3):602-6
Conjugated linoleic acid inhibits differentiation of pre- and post- confluent 3T3-L1 preadipocytes but inhibits cell proliferation only in preconfluent cells.
Brodie AE, Manning VA, Ferguson KR, Jewell DE, Hu CY
Department of Animal Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis OR 97331, USA. email@example.com
Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA; 18:2) is a group of isomers (mainly 9-cis, 11-trans and 10-trans, 12-cis) of linoleic acid. CLA is the product of rumen fermentation and can be found in the milk and muscle of ruminants. Animals fed CLA have a lower body fat content. The objective of this study was to establish the possible mechanisms by which CLA affects adipogenesis. 3T3-L1 is a well-established cell line that is used extensively in studying adipocyte biology. These cells typically grow in a culture medium until they reach confluence, at which time they are induced to differentiate by hormonal treatment (d 0). Treatment of 3T3-L1 cells with 25 to 100 micromol/L CLA inhibited differentiation in a dose-dependent manner, while linoleic acid treatment did not differ from DMSO-treated controls. Continuous treatment from d -2, -1, 0 or 2 to d 8 and treatment from d -2 to d 0 and from d 0 to d 2 inhibited differentiation. Differentiation was monitored morphologically (oil Red-O staining), enzymatically (reduction of activity of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase), and by northern analysis of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma2, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha and adipocyte specific protein 2 mRNA. CLA inhibited cell proliferation of nonconfluent cells but did not affect cell division of confluent cells, as indicated by 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine incorporation and mitochondria metabolism. Therefore, CLA inhibited differentiation before confluence and during induction. However, cellular proliferation was only inhibited prior to induction. These results imply that fat reduction caused by CLA treatment may be attributed to its inhibition of both proliferation and differentiation of preadipocytes in animals.
REFERENCE 13 OF 17
J Nutr 1999 Jan;129(1):32-8
Dietary conjugated linoleic acid influences the immune response of young and old C57BL/6NCrlBR mice.
Hayek MG, Han SN, Wu D, Watkins BA, Meydani M, Dorsey JL, Smith DE, Meydani SN
Nutritional Immunology Laboratory, Jean Mayer U.S. Department of Agriculture Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, Boston, MA 02111, USA.
Aging is associated with a decline in the immune response in mammals. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been suggested to have immunoenhancing properties. We examined the influence of dietary CLA on the immune response of young and old mice. Forty young (4 mo) and 40 old (22 mo) mice consumed ad libitum diets containing 0 or 1 g CLA /100 g for 8 wk. Splenocytes from half of the mice were isolated to evaluate proliferation to concanavalin A (Con A) (0.5, 1.5, 5.0 mg/L) and phytohemagglutinin A (PHA) (5, 20, 40 mg/L) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (5, 15, 30 mg/L), natural killer cell (NK) activity and prostaglandin (PG)E2 and interleukin (IL)-2 production. The remaining mice were used to evaluate in vivo delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) skin response. There was a significant decline due to age in response to all three mitogens tested (P < 0. 05). CLA supplementation significantly increased all CLA isomers measured in hepatic neutral lipids and phospholipids (P < 0.05). Young mice fed 1% CLA had greater splenocyte proliferation in response to Con A (0.5 and 5.0 mg/L) and PHA (40 mg/L) (P < 0.05) than young mice fed control diet. Old mice fed 1 g CLA/100 g had significantly higher proliferative response to optimal concentrations of Con A (1.5 mg/L) (P < 0.001) than the mice fed the control diet. Old mice fed the control diet had significantly lower splenocyte IL-2 production than the young mice (P < 0.005). CLA-supplemented young mice had significantly higher splenocyte IL-2 production than those fed the control diet (P < 0.05). CLA had no effect on NK cell activity, PGE2 production or DTH in young or old mice.
REFERENCE 14 OF 17
Atherosclerosis 1994 Jul;108(1):19-25
Conjugated linoleic acid and atherosclerosis in rabbits.
Lee KN, Kritchevsky D, Pariza MW
Department of Food Microbiology and Toxicology, University of Wisconsin-Madison 53706.
Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) consists of a series of positional and geometric dienoic isomers of linoleic acid that occur naturally in foods. CLA exhibits antioxidant activity in vitro and in vivo. To assess the effect of CLA on atherosclerosis, 12 rabbits were fed a semi-synthetic diet containing 14% fat and 0.1% cholesterol for 22 weeks. For 6 of these rabbits, the diet was augmented with CLA (0.5 g CLA/rabbit per day). Blood samples were taken monthly for lipid analysis. By 12 weeks total and LDL cholesterol and triglycerides were markedly lower in the CLA-fed group. Interestingly, the LDL cholesterol to HDL cholesterol ratio and total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol ratio were significantly reduced in CLA-fed rabbits. Examination of the aortas of CLA-fed rabbits showed less atherosclerosis.
REFERENCE 15 OF 17
Purdue News 1998
Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid Normalizes Impaired Glucose Tolerance in the Zucker Diabetic Fatty fa/faRat.
Karen L. Houseknecht, Purdue University; John P. Vanden Heuvel, Pennsylvania State University; Silvia Y. Moya-Camarena, Carla P. Portocarrero, Louise W. Peck, Kwangok P. Nickel, and Martha Belury, Purdue University.
Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a naturally occurring fatty acid which has anti-carcinogenic and anti-antherogenic properties. CLA activates PPAR-alpha in liver, and shares functional similarities to ligands of PPAR-gamma, the thiazolidinediones, which are potent insulin sensitizers. We provide the first evidence that CLA is able to normalize impaired glucose tolerance and improve hyperinsulinemia in the pre-diabetic ZDF rat. Additionally, dietary CLA increased steady state levels of aP2 mRNA in adipose tissue of fatty ZDF rats compared to controls, consistent with activation of PPAR-gamma. The insulin sensitizing effects of CLA are due, at least in part, to activation of PPAR-gamma since increasing levels of CLA induced a dose-dependent transactivation of PPAR-gamma in CV-1 cells cotransfected with PPAR-gamma and PPRE X 3-luciferase reporter construct. CLA effects on glucose tolerance and glucose homeostasis indicate that dietary CLA may prove to be an important therapy for the prevention and treatment of NIDDM.
REFERENCE 16 OF 17
Lipids 1998 Apr;33(4):417-25
Conjugated linoleic acids alter bone fatty acid composition and reduce ex vivo prostaglandin E2 biosynthesis in rats fed n-6 or n-3 fatty acids.
Li Y, Watkins BA
Department of Food Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907, USA.
This study evaluated the effects of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) on tissue fatty acid composition and ex vivo prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production in rats given diets varying in n-6 and n-3 fatty acids. Four groups of rats were given a basal semipurified diet (AIN-93G) containing 70 g/kg of added fat for 42 d. The fat treatments were formulated to contain CLA (0 vs. 10 g/kg of diet) and n-6 (soybean oil having an n-6/n-3 ratio of 7.3) and n-3 fatty acids (menhaden oil + safflower oil having an n-6/n-3 ratio of 1.8) in different ratios in a 2 x 2 factorial design. Fatty acids in liver, serum, muscle, heart, brain, spleen, and bone (cortical, marrow, and periosteum) were analyzed by capillary gas-liquid chromatography. The various dietary lipid treatments did not affect growth; however, CLA improved feed efficiency. The CLA isomers were found in all rat tissues analyzed although their concentrations varied. Dietary CLA decreased the concentrations of 16:1n-7, 18:1, total monounsaturates and n-6 fatty acids, but increased the concentrations of n-3 fatty acids (22:5n-3 and 22:6n-3), and saturates in the tissues analyzed. Ex vivo PGE2 production in bone organ culture was decreased by n-3 fatty acids and CLA. We speculate that CLA reduced the concentration of 18:1 fatty acids by inhibiting liver delta9-desaturase activity. The fact that CLA lowered ex vivo PGE2 production in bone organ culture suggests that these conjugated fatty acids have the potential to influence bone formation and resorption.
REFERENCE 17 OF 17
Am J Clin Nutr 1998 Feb;67(2):332-7
Safflower oil consumption does not increase plasma conjugated linoleic acid concentrations in humans.
Herbel BK, McGuire MK, McGuire MA, Shultz TD
Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Washington State University, Pullman 99164-6376, USA.
Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a mixture of positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid (LA) with conjugated double bonds. CLA has anticarcinogenic properties and has been identified in human tissues, dairy products, meats, and certain vegetable oils. A variety of animal products are good sources of CLA, but plant oils contain much less. However, plant oils are a rich source of LA, which may be isomerized to CLA by intestinal microorganisms in humans. To investigate the effect of triacylglycerol-esterified LA consumption on plasma concentrations of esterified CLA in total lipids, a dietary intervention (6 wk) was conducted with six men and six women. During the intervention period a salad dressing containing 21 g safflower oil providing 16 g LA/d was added to the subjects’ daily diets. Three-day diet records and fasting blood were obtained initially and during dietary and postdietary intervention periods. Although LA intake increased significantly during the dietary intervention, plasma CLA concentrations were not affected. Plasma total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol concentrations were significantly lower after addition of safflower oil to the diet. In summary, consumption of triacylglycerol-esterified LA in safflower oil did not increase plasma concentrations of esterified CLA in total lipids.